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Anatomy course: what is the lymphatic system?

The lymphatic system has several roles in our body: it takes int he excess 3 litres of blood from the capilaries, it sanitizes it by letting the white blood cells run through it and clean it of bacteria an viruses, it also serves us as a warning indicator when the ganglia get swollen up.

This is why the doctors check your neck ganglia to see if they are big. If yes, then you’ve got some disease lurking around.

Watch and learn about an important part of your body.

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Germ theory: how scientists found out what makes us ill and saved million of lives

Germ theory is the scientific theory that tells us that some illnesses are generates by viruses, bacteria, parasites and was first inventigates thoroughly and coined by John Snow and Englishman who was doing research on the cholera cases which showed up in London in 1854.

He was helped in 1884 by Robert Koch’s experiments in which he isolated the cholera causing bacteria, demonstrating that those tiny critters were at the base of the illness. This way the germ theory got support and then was demonstrated over and over again as being true and it is at the core of today’s medical establishment.

Good that the miasma theory was debunked and now we can point the fingers to the true cause of some diseases, at leas. Yay, for germ theory.

Note: The video says that Louis Pasteur was the first inventor of vaccines. Not. Vaccines were invented by Edward Jenner in 1790, not by Luis Pasteur. Pasteur invented the process of pasteurisation in which bacteria are killed when food from a recipient is sterilized by inserting in a hot stove for a while.

Learn about how vaccines work in here:

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What will your body do in 2015?

Quite a lot of things, actually. ASAP Science posted the banner from below. What does it say? It says that you will product 93 gallons of saliva in 2015, that your heart will beat about 35 million times and that your skin will shed about 8 lbs of skin cells.

Check the infographic from below for more info!

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When you lose weight the fat goes out through your breath as carbon dioxide

In an interesting turn of events, Ruben Meerman, researcher, and Andrew J Brown, professor have researched where does the fat in people go when we “burn” it. Well, surprisingly many doctors and nutritionists would say that the fat is transformed into heat or energy, but the researchers have concluded that this is not possible. Why? Because of this: E = mc^2.

You can’t just turn matter into energy and not obtain an atomic bomb.

Do, where does the fat go? Well, the fat, or better said the triglycerides C55H104O6 are burned through regular oxidation processes due to metabolism and then they are eliminated through respiration by exhaling CO2.

Due to the conservation of energy the researchers landed with this neat and simple reaction from chemistry:
C55H104O6 + 78O2 → 55CO2 + 52H2O + energy

There is actually some energy generated, but it is small in comparison with what we exhale.

What does this mean? That means that the fat goes out through our mouths when we exhale carbon dioxide.

Should we breath faster, then? Nope. You’ll over-ventilate. Do sports and eat just enough. Even a chocolate if you eat after doing sports for 1 hour will destroy your work.

So, now you know the solution in a scientifically stated way: sports and healthy eating.

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The clouds are teeming with life aka bacteria

Yes, the clouds are home to tons of lifeforms, especially bacteria. They are small and easy to carry in the air. Clouds are a good home for dust particles, dust mites, bacteria and who knows what else. There a whole jungle in there!

Bacteria was found even at 40 km high up, in the air, above every possible terrain you can think of. The bacteria are also living and multiplying in the cloud where they help forming rain drops, snowflakes, hail.

The bacteria from up there live due to the fact that they eat sugars flown up by the wind. These sugars are generated by plants on earth.

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Motor proteins, the things that make the cell work and divide

The motor proteins are proteins from within our cells that have the role of carrying cellular material around the cell (food, signaling molecules, genetic information). It uses the cells highway system called microtubule cytoskeleton created from a protein called tubulin. This cytoskelton gives the cells their structure.

One of the motor proteins Hank Green speaks about in this video is kinesin which has a head that can hold cargo, a middle area and two feet that can literally walk around on the tubes of the cytoskeleton.

Each motor protein’s foot uses ATP, adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that floats in the cell. When one foot grabs a molecule of ATP it changes shape and then it swings forward. A motor protein can travel with a speed of 1 micrometer/second.

This speed is too small for the nerve cell from our foot, which has a length of about 1 meter, but luckily the motor proteins can travel down this length even in 1-2 hours.

But how to motor proteins help cells divide? They simply job in one place until the microtubules from the cytoskeleton roll along and then break.


Could life be older than Earth?

Alexei A. Sharov and Richard Gordon published on a paper that shows their calculations: given the fact that the complexity of life doubles once every 376 million years, it seems that, going back in time, life could be about 9 billion years old. Or it could simply mean that life took more steps in the past than in current times.

Also, Abraham Loeb from Harvard University proposes the idea that, at an early stage of the Universe when the first planets were formed, the Universe was hot enough to allow liquid water to exist on some planets.

That might raise the idea that life existed way before Earth and that life, at least in microbial form, may be way more abundant than previously thought. Right now, we know for certain that we are alone in this part of the Universe or of the Solar System.

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Watch a Lyre Bird imitate a laser beam cannon

In the video from above you will see a Lyre bird, the single animal on Earth that can imitate a huge array of sounds incredibly well. In the video from above at 00:09, 00:17, 00:48 – 00:58, 01:24 you will hear the Lyre bird making the sound of a laser cannon. How fast can these birds learn a new sound, how many sounds can they imitate? It is incredible.

From Science Alert we learn that they can also imitate the sound of car alarm. See this below:

These birds use the huge varieties of sounds to attract mates during the mating season. How they got these vocal powers is is mystery, but they’d better stick around for a lot of time. Maybe we’ll breed some of them here, in Romania.

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The science of wildfires

Widlfires are seen as a bad thing, but they are bad for the human inhabitants, not for nature. Wildfires occur in many places and what they do is to burn up a ton of dry wood and vegetation and the resulting ash will then be used as a fertilizer for the newer plants to use.

Wilfires are good, but, when they occur near houses, they can destroy a lot of property. Luckily there are the firemen who are ready to save the day. Some of these firemen are sent directly between the burning forests to stop the blazes. Check out the smokejumpers, California’s parachuting firemen.

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Milking a spider

That’s new. Milking a spider means that you put the spider to sleep using carbon dioxyde and then put it on its back. From there on you jolt its fangs with some electricity and it will spew out venom. a ton of venom which you can collect.

Not a great sight, but milking spiders is actually useful as the biologists will use that venom to prepare anti-venom that can be used when humans get bitten by spiders.

In the video from above, Dr. Greta Binford, a researcher at Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon, extracts venom from a sleeping spider’s fangs and also explains how she does it with care. No spiders were harmed during this process.