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learn science

When you lose weight the fat goes out through your breath as carbon dioxide


In an interesting turn of events, Ruben Meerman, researcher, and Andrew J Brown, professor have researched where does the fat in people go when we “burn” it. Well, surprisingly many doctors and nutritionists would say that the fat is transformed into heat or energy, but the researchers have concluded that this is not possible. Why? Because of this: E = mc^2.

You can’t just turn matter into energy and not obtain an atomic bomb.

Do, where does the fat go? Well, the fat, or better said the triglycerides C55H104O6 are burned through regular oxidation processes due to metabolism and then they are eliminated through respiration by exhaling CO2.

Due to the conservation of energy the researchers landed with this neat and simple reaction from chemistry:
C55H104O6 + 78O2 → 55CO2 + 52H2O + energy

There is actually some energy generated, but it is small in comparison with what we exhale.

What does this mean? That means that the fat goes out through our mouths when we exhale carbon dioxide.

Should we breath faster, then? Nope. You’ll over-ventilate. Do sports and eat just enough. Even a chocolate if you eat after doing sports for 1 hour will destroy your work.

So, now you know the solution in a scientifically stated way: sports and healthy eating.

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geek science

Where is the most radioactive place on Earth?


Derek Muller from Veritasium went on a wild hunt for the most radioactive place on Earth. Regularly we get about 4 micro Sieverts of radioactivity in our bodies daily, which is a-ok, but you can get about 1.5 mSv, miliSieverts in one year.

A CT scan is about 7000 micro Sieverts or 7 mili Sieverts. The people living near Fukushima will receive and extra 10 000 microSieverts during their lifetime. In about 6 months an astronaut will receive 80 000 microSieverts.

But the most Sieverts in each year receives a smoker’s lung: 160 000 microSieverts each year. That means a smoker eats up radiation 100 times more than the natural background radiation. Quite a lot. And this happens because the existence of radioactive polonium and lead present in the tobacco.
smokers-lungs-radioactive-tobacco-100-times-normal-sieverts

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science tech

Did we just discover what dark matter is made of? Maybe sterile neutrinos are the solution!


DNews reports that sterile neutrinos could be the candidates for dark matter. Those are neutrinos that have masses between the electron neutrino (0.3 eV) and muon neutrino (0.115 MeV). In fact, it seems that the sterile neutrino might have a mass of just about 3.55 keV as it gives off X rays in that band when it decays.

We still need to confirm this, but the researchers have found a small bump in the X ray band at about 3.55 keV that correlate with the results from gravitational predictions:

The hunt for the dark matter particle is decades old, but we hope it has come to a close. Watch below the history of this search and how they could detect the sterile neutrinos in the X ray band:

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geek science

5 most dangerous chemicals on Earth


Hank Green, from SciShow, presents a list of top 5 dangerous chemicals int he world. Some of these were so dangerous that not even the nazis would dare touch or use them.

What 5 chemicals is it about then? Here they are:
1. ClF3, chlorine trifluoride, also called “substance N” by the nazis – blows up when exposed to air, lethal when inhaled, burns at 2400 degrees Celsius. It can burn bricks or asbestos or concrete and 1 meter or dirt beneath that too. It is a better oxidizer than oxygen.

2. C2N14, azidoazide azide – the most explosive chemical compound ever created. It explodes even when left alone. The researchers left azidoazide azide in a dark room undisturbed and it still exploded.

3. Ch3CdCh3, dimethylcadmium – the most toxic chemical in the world. A few micrograms/cubic meter are enough to kill you. Friction, water, and any movement will make it explode.

4. C3H6S, thioacetone – the worlds smelliest chemical. You can smell a drop of thioacetone from half a kilometer away. In 1989 the whole city of Freiburg was evacuated due to the accidental release of this substance at a factory in that city.

5. H2FsbF6, fluoroantimonic acid – the strongest corrosive agent in the world and the most dangerous acid ever invented. It is 10 million billions times stronger than sulfuric acid. You can only store fluoroantimonic acid in teflon containers because teflon contains bonds of C-F, carbon-fluorine, the strongest bond in the organic chemistry chemical. It eats glass like it is being nothing.

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geek learn science

Why the upper Earth’s atmosphere is green


If you look closely at the night sky you will see that, at the horizon line, you will see a faint green glow. This is called airglow and happens allover the world. The lower parts of it are green, but in the upper atmosphere the color is actually red.

What causes this airglow?

The excited oxygen atoms do this. During the day the UV rays hits the O2 molecules and, due to the high energies of UV rays, the molecule are split up in oxygen atoms that also engulf some of the UV energy. We call these oxygen atoms that have some extra UV energy in them excited atoms.

After a while the oxygen atoms combine into a molecule back again releasing a faint blue light. If you go between 95 – 100 km int he atmosphere you will encounter lone oxygen atoms that release the energy in the form of visible green light.

If you go above 100 km you will encounter excited oxygen atoms that will release a red light. The atoms become stable again by moving the electrons from higher energy states, where they wound up by eating some of the UV energy, to their stable or ground energy states. By moving the electrons back to the ground states a photon is emitted.

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entertainment geek

PC gaming: 3 GTX 970s vs 2 GTX 980s and what is M.2


Linus tested 3 GTX 970s vs 2 GTX 980s and found out that it is better to use 2 GTX 980s. Why? Because you won’t need to consume that much power with only 2 cards instead of 3 and the cards will not heat as crazy. Using three cards in SLI mode will result in the card that is positioned at the middle to heat up unnecessarily and make a ton of noise in return.

If you really have the money to spend buy one good, premium graphics card. The GTX 980 costs about $550 and the GTX 970 costs $330. Both use GDDR5, have 4 GB of VRAM but the processor clock speed vary and also the CUDA processors.

All in all, the GTX 970 seems to be the better option cost-wise.

Now, let’s learn about the M.2 the port on the motherboard where you can insert your M.2 SSD. Newer SSD can be inserted in the M.2 slot and you will have a ton of connection speed because of this. You will not need any wires to connect this SSD to the motherboard so you got some increased write/read speeds.

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geek learn science

The clouds are teeming with life aka bacteria


Yes, the clouds are home to tons of lifeforms, especially bacteria. They are small and easy to carry in the air. Clouds are a good home for dust particles, dust mites, bacteria and who knows what else. There a whole jungle in there!

Bacteria was found even at 40 km high up, in the air, above every possible terrain you can think of. The bacteria are also living and multiplying in the cloud where they help forming rain drops, snowflakes, hail.

The bacteria from up there live due to the fact that they eat sugars flown up by the wind. These sugars are generated by plants on earth.

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learn science

Motor proteins, the things that make the cell work and divide

The motor proteins are proteins from within our cells that have the role of carrying cellular material around the cell (food, signaling molecules, genetic information). It uses the cells highway system called microtubule cytoskeleton created from a protein called tubulin. This cytoskelton gives the cells their structure.

One of the motor proteins Hank Green speaks about in this video is kinesin which has a head that can hold cargo, a middle area and two feet that can literally walk around on the tubes of the cytoskeleton.

Each motor protein’s foot uses ATP, adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that floats in the cell. When one foot grabs a molecule of ATP it changes shape and then it swings forward. A motor protein can travel with a speed of 1 micrometer/second.

This speed is too small for the nerve cell from our foot, which has a length of about 1 meter, but luckily the motor proteins can travel down this length even in 1-2 hours.

But how to motor proteins help cells divide? They simply job in one place until the microtubules from the cytoskeleton roll along and then break.

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entertainment science

Watch these incredible animated optical illusions by Brusspup


Brusspup is the master of optical illusions on YouTube. Many videos will show you how the brain is tricked in numerous ways.

In this case you can see how two sliding sheets will generate the illusion of movement. Much the same as with early cartoons where you saw a ton of still images on a drum and, when moved fast enough, you would see some movement.

You can also have those sliding images at home. To download and print them check the video description from here.

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science

Your phone won’t give you cancer and you don’t get the flu from the flu shot


Aaron Carroll is ready to fight the medical myths again. This time it is about the phone and its cancer giving properties, which have not been demonstrated even after 2 decades of studies from around the world.

Phone use microwave radiation, liek the one from your microwave oven, but at much lower intensity and thus, the only possible effect when used continuously is a mils heating of the area where the phone is near your skin.

Heating. Maybe not even one degree.

So, as for cancer giving properties, phones have not been proven to do that.

Next up: does the flu shot give you flu? Nope. The symptoms you feel when you get the flu shot is your body reacting to the inactive viruses or bacteria in that shot.

So, if you fell ill after you have been given a flu shot, then that means that you are ok, your body works. It simply mounts a response to the inactive pathogens from the vaccines.

You’ll be ok in no time, but ready for the big battle: